We see through the cornea, which is the clear outer lens or ""windshield"" of the eye. Normally, the cornea has a dome shape, like a ball. Sometimes, however, the structure of the cornea is just not strong enough to hold this round shape and the cornea bulges outward like a cone. This condition is called keratoconus.
Treatment usually starts with new eyeglasses. If eyeglasses don't provide adequate vision, then contact lenses, usually rigid gas permeable contact lenses, may be recommended. With mild cases, new eyeglasses can usually make vision clear again. Eventually, though, it will probably be necessary to use contact lenses or seek other treatments to strengthen the cornea and improve vision.
A treatment called cornea collagen crosslinking is often effective to help prevent progression. Intacs are implants that are placed under the surface of the cornea to reduce the cone shape and improve vision. If eyeglasses and contact lenses no longer provide stable and comfortable good quality vision, a cornea transplant can be performed. This involves removing the center of the cornea and replacing it with a donor cornea that is stitched into place.
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